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Shenyang ([ʂə̀n.jǎŋ]; Chinese: 沈阳), formerly known as Fengtian (Chinese: 奉天) or by its Manchu name Mukden, is a major Chinese sub-provincial city and the provincial capital of Liaoning province. Located in central-north Liaoning, it is the province's most populous city, with a total metropolitan population up to 8.1 million. The largest city in Northeast China by urban population, with 6.3 million people (2010 census), Shenyang is also the central city of one of the major megalopolises in China, the Greater Shenyang Metropolitan Area, which has a total population over 23 million. The city's administrative region includes the ten metropolitan districts of Shenyang proper, the county-level city of Xinmin, and two counties: Kangping and Faku.
The Manchu people conquered Shenyang in the 17th century and briefly used it as the capital of Qing-dynasty China. The Battle of Mukden took place in 1905 during the Russo-Japanese War. Japan's subsequent victory allowed Tokyo to annex the region west of the old city and to increase Japanese influence on Shenyang; in September 1931 the Mukden Incident led the Japanese to further invade and occupy the rest of Northeast China, forming the puppet state of Manchukuo. After the Japanese surrender in 1945, Shenyang remained a Kuomintang stronghold, but the Communists captured it in 1948 after the Liaoshen Campaign.
Along with its nearby cities, Shenyang is an important industrial center in China, and serves as the transportation and commercial hub of China's northeast—particularly involved in links with Japan, Russia and Korea. A center of heavy industry in China since the 1930s, and the spearhead of the Chinese central government's Northeast Area Revitalization Plan, the city has been diversifying its industry, including expanding into the service sector. Growing industries include software, automotive and electronics.
Shenyang is also a major city for scientific research, appearing among the top 200 Science Cities in the world as tracked by the Nature Index.
The city is home to several major universities, notably Northeastern University and Liaoning University, members of China's prestigious universities in the Project 211.
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