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Maharashtra (; Marathi: [məharaːʂʈrə] (listen), abbr. MH) is a state in the western peninsular region of India occupying a substantial portion of the Deccan Plateau. As the home of the Marathi people, Maharashtra is the second-most populous state in India as well as the second-most populous country subdivision. Maharashtra was formed on 1 May 1960 by splitting the bilingual Bombay State, which had existed since 1956, into majority Marathi-speaking Maharashtra and Gujarati-speaking Gujarat, respectively. The state capital is Mumbai, the most populous urban area in India. The Godavari and the Krishna are the two major rivers in the state. Marathi is the most widely spoken language and is also the official language of the state.
Spread over 307,713 km2 (118,809 sq mi), it is the third-largest state by area in India. Maharashtra is bordered by the Arabian Sea to the west, the Indian states of Karnataka and Goa to the south, Telangana to the southeast and Chhattisgarh to the east, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh to the north, and the Indian union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu to the northwest. Nagpur hosts the winter session of the state legislature. The state has three international airports, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj International Airport (Mumbai), Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar International Airport (Nagpur), and Pune Airport (Lohegaon, Pune). The state is home to three railways headquarters viz. Central Railway (Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus), Konkan Railway (CBD Belapur) and Western Railway (Churchgate). The High Court of the state viz. Bombay High Court is located in Mumbai.
Prior to Indian independence, Maharashtra was chronologically ruled by the Satavahana dynasty, Rashtrakuta dynasty, Western Chalukyas, Deccan sultanates, Mughals and Marathas, and the British. Ruins, monuments, tombs, forts, and places of worship left by these rulers are dotted around the state. The state is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Ajanta and Ellora caves. Pune is known as the 'Oxford of the East' due to the presence of several well-known educational institutions. Nashik is known as the 'Wine Capital of India' as it has the largest number of wineries and vineyards in the country.
Maharashtra is the most industrialised state in India and the state's capital, Mumbai is India's financial and commercial hub. The state has played a significant role in the country's social and political life and widely considered a leader in terms of agricultural and industrial production, trade and transport, and education. Maharashtra is one of the most developed and prosperous Indian states and continues to be the single largest contributor to the national economy with a share of 15% in the country's GDP. The economy of Maharashtra is the largest in India, with a gross state domestic product (GSDP) of ₹28.78 trillion (US$400 billion) and has the country's 13th-highest GSDP per capita of ₹207,727 (US$2,900). Maharashtra is the fifteenth-highest ranking among Indian states in human development index.
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