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Korolyov or Korolev (Russian: Королёв, IPA: [kərɐˈlʲɵf]) is an industrial city in Moscow Oblast, Russia, well known as the cradle of Soviet and Russian space exploration. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 183,402, the largest as a science city. As of 2018, the population is more than 220,000 people.
It was known as Kaliningrad (Калинингра́д) from 1938 to 1996 and served as the leading Soviet center for production of anti-tank and air-defense guns. In 1946, in the aftermath of World War II, the artillery plant was reconstructed for production of rockets, launch vehicles, and spacecraft, under the guidance of Russian scientist and academician Sergei Korolev, who envisioned, consolidated and guided the activities of many people in the Soviet space-exploration program. The plant later became known as the RKK Energia; when the Vostok space vehicle was being developed, this research center was designated as NII-88 or POB 989.
Russian Mission Control Center is also located in Korolyov. Though the real control is decentralized due to security reasons and all space aircraft may be controlled from many different locations across Russia, the historic center of control is still in Korolev, and is called FCC - Flights Control Center.
In July 1996, the city was renamed in commemoration of Sergei Korolev, the father of the Soviet/Russian space program, who died in 1966. Since 1997, Korolyov has hosted the International Space Olympics, an annual competition for young people to promote space related research.
2.62 meter/sec, 321°
2.76 meter/sec, 297°
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